CHAPTER 2: A Brief History of Weather Modification, Warfare, & Climate Geoengineering
This summarized timeline focuses on the development and implementation of weather modification technologies in English speaking countries – especially the USA -- because that’s the language I speak and the territory I live in. Several other countries --notably Russia and China -- have developed similarly powerful weather modification capabilities over the same time frame, but delving deep into that history is beyond the scope of this paper or the translation abilities of its author.
Much of this information has been adapted and reformatted from Jim Lee’s Radiation Database, Harold Saive’s GeoEngineering Exposed, and Jeane Manning & Dr. Nick Begich's book "Angels Don't Play This HAARP". I offer many thanks to these researchers for their brave efforts and impeccably researched work.
This is certainly an incomplete history because weather modification, weather warfare, and geo-engineering are all shrouded by disinformation and secrecy. Everything mentioned here is true to the extent that we can trust "reputable" government and scientific sources to tell the truth in documents that were never intended for the general public. For a more complete timeline, check this out (updated regularly).
The purpose of this timeline is simply to show how long humans have been scheming to manipulate the weather and climate, and how far along these efforts have progressed. If you already believe that chemtrails and wireless energy (aka HAARP technology) are being used to screw with our weather and could have horrible impacts on human and planetary health, simply skip to the next chapter.
1877: Harvard geologist Nathaniel Shaler proposed channeling the warm Kuroshio Current through the Bering Strait to raise temperatures in the Polar region by 30 degrees. This is the first documented modern climate modification proposal.
1889: Visionary writer Jules Verne fancifully writes about engineering Earth’s climate in “The Purchase Of The North Pole”. Verne writes that the an anonymous bidder from the United States purchased large tracts of the Arctic and then used a gigantic cannon built into the flanks of Mt. Kilimanjaro in an attempt to tilt the Earth’s axis and thus render the Arctic inhabitable. The plan went horribly wrong. Like other books of his later years, in this novel Verne tempers his love of science and engineering with a good dose of irony about the potential for harmful abuse and the fallibility of human endeavors.
1890-1892: US Congress funds rainfall enhancement experiments overseen by General Robert St. George Dyrenfoth. Conducted in Texas these experiments utilized balloons carrying explosives to see whether explosions in the atmosphere would create rainfall. Experiment discontinued due to obvious failure of this method.
1900: Nikola Tesla applies for patent for a device to transmit Electrical Energy “Through the Natural Mediums”. U.S. Patent #787,412 issued in 1905. Wireless energy transmission was subsequently suppressed by powerful business interests keen on profiting from a wired electrical grid. Wireless electricity would be much harder to "meter" and thus charging individuals' consumption would be harder to control. Wireless power transmission is NOT a new technology, and can be used to unnaturally modify large portions of the atmosphere. Electrical signals travel in waves, and all matter has a resonant frequency. Heat is resonance within matter. Zapping matter with the right resonant frequency causes heating. Wireless electricity transmission opened the door to manipulating Earth's atmosphere wirelessly.
1904: US government begins using airplanes to conduct atmospheric research. The Wright Brothers historic first flight took place in 1903. Uncle Sam didn't wait long to put their amazing invention to work in weather research. As we shall see this is consistent with all major technological breakthroughs that can be applied to weather monitoring and modification.
1912: New York Engineer and Industrialist Carroll Livingston Riker proposes building a 200 mile jetty off of Newfoundland to increase the Gulf Stream’s flow into the Arctic Basin to open shipping lanes around the North Pole and to make the far North inhabitable with the added benefit that it would “shift” the axis of Planet Earth. The New York Times characterizes the proposal as “amazing”… but not insane.
1917: Norwegian meteorologists begin experimenting with air mass analysis techniques which revolutionize the practice of meteorology. Manipulating air masses with chemicals and wireless energy is the foundation of modern weather modification.
1924: Confirmation that radio waves bounce off of the ionosphere (an electrically-charged layer composed of high-energy ions starting at an altitude of 50 kilometers). Bouncing wireless energy off of the ionosphere or artificially-induced plasma layers allows accurate aiming of modern weather manipulating (and/or mind-controlling) frequencies.
1929: Hermann Oberth, German-Hungarian physicist and engineer, proposes building giant mirrors on a space station to focus the Sun’s radiation on Earth’s surface, making the far North habitable and freeing sea lanes to Siberian harbors. Are you spotting the trend of hare-brained schemes to de-ice the Arctic North yet?
1930s: Tesla announces “death ray” invention. HAARP technology is the modern manifestation of Tesla's "death ray". Once again, wireless energy transmission is NOT a new technology.
1943: Tesla dies and the US government seizes and classifies all of his papers. Go figure.
1945: Atomic bomb tests begin, culminating in the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that same year. That's right, only a few months after the first atomic bomb test, the US Military dropped atomic bombs on people! An estimated 40,000 nuclear weapons tests (and resulting electromagnetic pulses and toxic radiation releases) follow.
1945: Julian Huxley, Secretary-General of United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), proposes exploding atomic bombs at an appropriate height above the polar regions to raise the temperature of the Arctic Ocean and warm the entire climate of the northern temperate zone. Less than a year after atomic bombs were invented, powerful officials at the UN were already scheming how to manipulate the climate with atomic bombs.
1946: Researchers at General Electric develop methods of cloud seeding using dry ice and silver iodide. Vincent Schaefer discovered that dry ice could be used to seed clouds. A month later Dr. Bernard Vonnegut (older brother of writer Kurt Vonnegut) discovered that silver iodide was a more effective way to seed clouds. Since 1946 an ever-growing number of governments and business interests around the world have used silver iodide cloud seeding to enhance precipitation, limit hail storms, clear fog, and in experiments seeking to steer/strengthen/weaken storms.
1947: The US Department of Defence (DoD) conducts Project Cirrus in which about 200 pounds of dry ice is dropped into a hurricane heading back out to sea, which for whatever reason, abruptly changed course and slammed into Savannah, Georgia. The public blamed the government for this catastrophe, so future storm modification experiments took place more secretly. Once again, we see a brand new technology being used in an attempt to alter the weather in massive way.
Late 1940's: Dr. Wilhelm Reich develops weather modification techniques based on Orgone energy (aka, the Tao, Chi, or Life Force). Dr. Reich shares his work with the US DoD.
1949-1952: The UK runs weather modification experiments under the name of Project Cumulus.
1951-1953: US DoD conducts the Artificial Cloud Nucleation Project (AEN), a large-scale weather modification project in Washington. By the early 1950's 10% of the continental United States was under commercial cloud seeding operations.
1953: President Eisenhower creates the U.S. Advisory Committee on Weather Control.
1958: Van Allen radiation belts discovered (zones of charged particles trapped in earth’s magnetic field 2,000+ miles up). Project Argus: U.S. Navy explodes 3 nuclear missiles in the recently discovered Van Allen belt. VA Belt violently disrupted with nuclear detonations via long range missiles. It sure didn't take them long to start meddling with a natural system they just discovered!
1958: Chief White House Adviser on Weather Modification, Captain Howard T. Orville, said the Department of Defense was studying “ways to manipulate the charges of the Earth and sky and so affect the weather by using an electronic beam to ionise or de-ionise the atmosphere over a given area." This is Nikola Tesla's wireless electricity "death ray" being experimented with 54 years ago!
1958: M. Gorodsky, Soviet engineer and mathematician, and Valentin Cherenkov, Soviet meteorologist, propose placing a ring of metallic potassium particles into Earth’s polar orbit to diffuse light reaching Earth and increase solar radiation to thaw the permanently frozen soil of Russia, Canada, and Alaska and melt polar ice. Once again, we see proposals to melt the Arctic. Also worth noting, these scientists proposed adding metallics to the atmosphere to HEAT the planet. Modern Geoengineers claim adding metallics to the atmosphere will COOL the planet. What do you think the real impact of atmospheric aerosol metallic particles is? Does metal get hot when the sun hits it? Will hot metal transmit heat to the air around it? Think about it.
1958: Arkady Markin, Soviet engineer, proposes that the United States and Soviet Union build a gigantic dam across the Bering Strait and use nuclear power–driven propeller pumps to push the warm Pacific current into the Atlantic by way of the Arctic Sea. Arctic ice would melt, and the Siberian and North American frozen areas would become temperate and productive.
1958: Russian oil engineer, P.M. Borisov proposes melting the Arctic and Greenland icecaps by spreading black coal dust on the ice, creating cloud-cover across the poles to trap heat, and by diverting warm Atlantic waters into the polar regions. This scheme was taken seriously by Soviet climatologists. Two conferences were held in Leningrad in the early 1960′s following an initial meeting in Moscow of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1959.
1958: Atlantic Richfield geologist L.M. Natland, proposes exploding up to 100 underground nuclear bombs to mine the Alberta Tar Sands. Heat from the detonations was expected to boil the bitumen deposits, reducing their viscosity to the point that standard drilling operations could be used. The plan was encouraged by US efforts to find “peaceful uses” for atomic energy. The project was approved in 1959 but the Canadian government reversed their decision in 1962 and declared that Canada was opposed to all forms of nuclear testing. In 2012 the Canadian Tar Sands are again an issue of international concern.
1960-1961: US Project Skyfire begins experimentation into controlling lightning. Project Stormfury begins more intense study into modifying hurricanes (Stormfury continues 22 years until ending in 1983). Most Stormfury experiments took place with tropical storms around the Philippines in part to avoid a public outcry like that caused by 1947's hurricane disaster related to Project Cirrus.
1961: Project Skywater – Bureau of Reclamation cloud seeding project funded by Congress.
1961: US releases 3.5 billion inch long copper needles into the ionosphere at an altitude of ~3,000km as a “telecommunications shield”.
1961: Scientists propose artificial ion cloud experiments. In 1960′s the experimental dumping of chemicals (barium powder, etc.) from satellites and rockets began.
1961-62: Soviets and USA blast many electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the atmosphere. 300 megatons of nuclear devices detonated in numerous experiments have depleted Earth's ozone layer by an estimated 4%.
1962: Harry Wexler (March 15, 1911- 1962) was an MIT graduate and PhD in meteorology. Wexler had been researching the link connecting chlorine and bromine compounds to the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layers, but died of a heart attack while on vacation in Woods Hole, Mass. Wexler had already accepted an invitation to deliver a lecture entitled “The Climate of Earth and Its Modifications” at the University of Maryland Space Research and Technology Institute.
1966: Report to Interdepartmental Committee for Atmospheric Sciences (ICAS) by ICAS Select Panel – Chair, Gordon JF MacDonald. “Future plans of Federal Agencies in Weather and Climate Modification.” Gordon J. F MacDonald suggests military applications of environmental engineering.
1966: Weather officials from 25 nations meet in London for the First International Clean Air Congress. The National Meteorological Center introduces a computer numerical model capable of making sea level predictions as accurate as those made manually.
1966: US Federal Government spends about $7 million on projects including precipitation modification; hail suppression; fog and cloud dissipation; lighting modification; severe storm modification, and “other.” The Office of Naval Research sponsors major research in tornado modification, hurricane steering and cyclone manipulation.
1967-1972: US Military conducts covert weather warfare over Vietnam via Operation Popeye,an attempt to extend the monsoon season, specifically over areas of the Viet Cong supply route, aka Ho Chi Mihn Trail. The operation seeded clouds with silver iodide, resulting in the targeted areas seeing an extension of the monsoon period an average of 30 to 45 days. As the continuous rainfall slowed down the truck traffic, it was considered relatively successful. The 54th Weather Recon Squadron carried out the operation to "make mud, not war."
1968: Moscow scientists tell the West that they have pinpointed which pulsed magnetic field frequencies help mental and physiological functions and which do harm. Basic mind-control technology has been discovered. HAARP and other technologies can exploit these human vulnerabilities.
1968: Gordon J. F. MacDonald, Chair of the ICAS Select Panel on Weather and Climate Modification, authors a chapter in the book "Unless Peace Comes" where he predicts that future means of obtaining national objectives by force hinges on man’s ability to control and manipulate the environment of planet Earth. MacDonald said:
“When achieved, this power over his environment will provide man with a new force capable of doing great and indiscriminate damage. Our present primitive understanding of deliberate environmental change makes it difficult to imagine a world in which geophysical warfare is practiced. Such a world might be one in which nuclear weapons were effectively banned and the weapons of mass destruction were those of environmental catastrophe. As I will argue, these weapons are peculiarly suited for covert or secret wars.”
Bear in mind that the US was already engaged in weather warfare over Vietnam at the time.
1968: Gordon J. F. MacDonald writes as follows in "Toward the Year 2018", p. 34):
"By the year 2018, technology will make available to the leaders of the major nations a variety of techniques for conducting secret warfare, of which only a bare minimum of the security forces need be appraised. One nation may attack a competitor covertly by bacteriological means, thoroughly weakening the population (though with a minimum of fatalities) before taking over with its own overt armed forces. Alternatively, techniques of weather modification could be employed to produce prolonged periods of drought or storm, thereby weakening a nation's capacity and forcing it to accept the demands of the competitor."
1970: The Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) becomes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The U.S. Weather Bureau becomes the National Weather Service (NWS). Many functions of these organizations are subsequently privatized and thus subject to less budget scrutiny or congressional oversight. For example, at the present date (2012) the private weapons contractor Raytheon has been providing all computer services and forecasting data to the National Weather Service since 2005.
1970: US National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski (who is still very active in 2012) publishes "Between Two Ages: America's Role in the Technetronic Era" containing the following informative quotes:
"Not only have new weapons been developed but some of the basic concepts of geography and strategy have been fundamentally altered; space and weather control have replaced Suez or Gibraltar as key elements of strategy... future developments may well include automated or manned space warships, deep sea installations, chemical and biological weapons, death rays, and still other forms of warfare—even the weather may be tampered with."
1971: The US and Russia undertake a joint research venture named POLEX, Polar Experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program. Do you remember all the previous proposals aiming to melt the Arctic? The US, Russia, and European countries would benefit greatly from open shipping lanes, accessible oil/mineral deposits, and warmer temperatures at high latitudes if the Arctic melted.
1972: First reports on “ionospheric heater” experiments with high frequency radio waves, at the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory . 100-megawatt heater in Norway built later in decade which can change conductivity of auroral ionosphere.
1972: Potential Value of Satellite Cloud Pictures in Weather Modification Projects – Report prepared for NASA by Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.
1972: While attempting to expose the covert weather warfare over Vietnam that began in 1967, Senator Claiborne Pell testifies before Congress as follows:
"Rainmaking as a weapon of war can only lead to the development of vastly more dangerous environmental techniques whose consequences may be unknown and may cause irreparable damage to our global environment. This is why the United States must move quickly to ban all environmental or geophysical modification techniques from the arsenals of war."
(US Senate, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment; July 26, 1972; p. 4)
"Why should we be so alarmed about a technique that it is not nearly as lethal as other forms of warfare? There are several reasons. First, there are distinct command and control problems associated with geophysical warfare and weather modification in particular. We simply do not have the effective short or long term control over the climates of the world. We can create disturbances, but as civilian experiments have shown, control is not very precise. In a military environment, control over the results of weather experimentation is even more uncertain...
We must also consider that the use of weather modification is potentially indiscriminate. Unlike other weapons, the winds and seas are not so directable that we can discriminate between one target and another. By their nature, they are area wide weapons. We cannot flood only military targets or cause droughts in areas producing only military rations. The technology will be used against people regardless of their uniform or occupation. Weather modification will inevitably strike civilians harder than nearby military objectives. Will rain along the Ho Chi Minh Trail succeed where years of bombing has not? And what will it exact from agrarian societies along its path, both friend and foe?
The issues of command and control, and the discrimination highlight another disturbing characteristic of weather modification, the difficulty of detection. Unlike other weapons, it may be possible to initiate military weather modification projects without being detected. In other words, the military results may not be visibly tied to the initiating party. This raises the possibility of clandestine use of geophysical warfare where a country does not know if it has been attacked. The uncertainty of this situation, the fear of not knowing how another country might be altering your climate is highly destabilizing.
I can also envision other possibility. Suppose, for example, that a US plane flies a routine, non military mission near Chile, Egypt, or Tanzania and by some quirk of fate a major earthquake, flood, or forest fire occurs in one of these countries. Because we have been tinkering with geophysical warfare, we could be charged with creating that environmental calamity due to the mere proximity of the U.S. aircraft. Propaganda would echo around the world. There is ample precedent to believe that this would happen. We need only to remember the incident during the Korean war when the North Koreans unjustly claimed that we were using poison gas."
(US Senate, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment; 27 July 1972; pp. 57-58)
Note that Congressman Gude mentions "geophysical warfare" and the potential for triggering earthquakes with technology in addition to weather modification.
1974: TIMELINE CONTINUED IN PART IV. CLICK HERE.